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What Makes a Law Firm a Success in Africa?

law firm

There are a variety of different ways in which a law firm can measure its success, depending on the perspective taken. If law firms have the expertise that their clients need, when their clients need it, in the location that their clients operate in, then they are positioned to succeed.

In addition, a lawyer’s ability to successfully partner with a client, and to render commercially beneficial advice to clients when they need it, can be an accurate measure of whether they will be able to deliver an excellent service.

Excellence in law firms and among legal professionals was honoured at the recent ESQ Nigerian Legal Awards. The Awards reflected pre-eminence in key transactions, practice areas, and achievements over the last eighteen months, including notable work, strategic growth, excellence and innovation in client service, advancement in technology and contribution to the legal profession at large.

This year, Aluko & Oyebode won the Law Firm of the Year award and also took first prize in the Telecommunications Team of the Year category. Justina Lewa, General Counsel and Company Secretary at Sterling Bank Plc, won the General Counsel of the Year award.

One of the keys to any law firm’s success is having the best people, with the right skills in place. This is the view of Jeetesh Kathawaroo and Ignaz Fuesgen, directors at Avuka Training and Coaching, a firm specialising in professional services training.

Kathwaroo noted that, “In terms of training in law firms, it is the softer skills that are often most lacking. Most law firms have candidate attorney (CA) programmes that offer plenty of resources for the CAs to learn about the law, from rotating through practice areas for hands-on experience through to online training and knowledge portals.

“However, entrepreneurship, leadership, business development and management training, skills needed to sell and promote legal services and most importantly, form lasting relationships with clients, are areas where training is most needed.”

Meanwhile, Fuesgen stated that in the past, law firms were positioned in a reactive space where clients called them when their advice was needed. This is no longer enough. With increased global competition and the power balance shifting to clients, law firms are realising they should be more proactive, client-focused and able to anticipate legal risks faced by clients to secure work.

“New investors and new business models are targeting Africa as the last promising investment destination globally. Across the board, we are seeing those financial and strategic investors introducing their own views regarding advisory services models and remuneration styles, which they have successfully deployed elsewhere.

That attendant phenomenon is affecting the legal profession on the ground in Africa. In Nigeria and South Africa, for example, lawyers had been relying, up until now, on their individual excellence and their reputable, established brands, but this is no longer sufficient.  Lawyers now need to look at and compare the quality of their client service, the agility of their individual service delivery models and their ability to stand up to global best practice,” he says.

A core skill, but one where there is often a gap for lawyers is business development.

“The term business development has been tainted in the past, often related to unsolicited sales approaches. Business development is about instilling a sense of client focus and pro-activity. Fee-earning partners in business development roles and non-fee earning business development professionals need to be very close to prospective clients and must have a keen understanding of their business environments.

“It is about knowing the implications of the current and imminent legal and regulatory frameworks of a client’s future strategy, pointing out where business risk can be alleviated and performing a reliable caretaker role.  Business development means partnering with clients in terms of identified context variables that have a significant impact on their businesses.”

Fuesgen explained that a common mistake law firms make in terms of training is the decision to use a generic training programme because the right, specific programmes are not available.

“This inevitably results in disappointment. The training programmes need to be specific and bespoke so that it accurately meets the needs and the culture of the firm,” he said.

“In addition, to successfully implement training, the firm’s current and future strategy needs to be considered. Training that is potentially “disruptive” and drives a new business model must be followed up with a change management programme so that the reason for the training and the future direction of the firm is clearly articulated to all employees.”

However, Kathwaroo highlighted that law firms and their clients are demanding, working to a high standard of excellence. In turn, training and training service providers need to meet and exceed the same standards, especially in terms of relevance, quality and value.

A training needs analysis, conducted right at the beginning of the process, enables a firm to understand what the training gaps are.

“A need analysis can often identify wide discrepancies in what management think are the training needs for fee earners and employees at their firm and what they really are. This process is thus an extremely valuable part of the training programme in terms of achieving a true Return on Training Investment (ROTI),” said Kathwaroo.

He noted that during a needs analysis, discussions automatically centre on the firm’s business model and what their future direction will be.

Speaking specifically about the Nigerian legal market, Fuesgen posited that, “With many foreign firms entering the African continent and Nigeria being amongst the biggest and most attractive legal services markets in Africa, local independent firms need to clarify where they are in terms of their affiliations.

“Is their strategy that they become part of a global network or do they create their own network and team up with peers in other African countries?  The question they need to ask is, how do I embed my Nigerian law firm in the context of work in Nigeria and rest of Africa? Each firm has to assess its options going forward and decide, based on their ambitions and current capacities,” said Fuesgen.

“The competitive landscape is forcing each jurisdiction,that is local practitioners and law societies, to revisit aspects of practice management and professional standards in context of the global village.  Law firms in Africa are subject to change, and those delivering excellence are being noticed,” he added.

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Pomerantz Law Firm Announces the Filing of a Class Action against Allergan plc and Certain Officers – AGN

NEW YORK, Nov. 08, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Pomerantz LLP announces that a class action lawsuit has been filed against Allergan plc (“Allergan” or the “Company”) (NYSE:AGN) and certain of its officers. The class action, filed in United States District Court, Southern District of New York, and docketed under 16-cv-08661, is on behalf of a class consisting of all persons or entities who purchased or otherwise acquired Allergan securities between February 25, 2014 and November 2, 2016, both dates inclusive (the “Class Period”), seeking to recover compensable damages caused by defendants’ violations of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

If you are a shareholder who purchased Allergan securities during the Class Period, you have until January 3, 2017 to ask the Court to appoint you as Lead Plaintiff for the class. A copy of the Complaint can be obtained at www.pomerantzlaw.com. To discuss this action, contact Robert S. Willoughby at rswilloughby@pomlaw.com or 888.476.6529 (or 888.4-POMLAW), toll free, ext. 9980. Those who inquire by e-mail are encouraged to include their mailing address, telephone number, and number of shares purchased. 

[Click here to join this class action]

Allergan, a specialty pharmaceutical company, develops, manufactures, markets, and distributes medical aesthetics, biosimilar, and over-the-counter pharmaceutical products worldwide. The Company was formerly known as Actavis plc and changed its name to Allergan plc in June 2015 after acquiring Allergan Inc. The Company’s common stock has traded under the ticker symbol “AGN” since June 15, 2015. Prior to June 15, 2015, the common stock of Actavis plc traded on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “ACT”.

On July 26, 2015, Allergan entered into a master purchase agreement, under which Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. agreed to acquire Actavis, the Company’s global generic pharmaceuticals business unit. On August 2, 2016, the companies announced the completion of the acquisition.

The Complaint alleges that throughout the Class Period, Defendants made materially false and/or misleading statements, as well as failed to disclose material adverse facts about the Company’s business, operations, and prospects. Specifically, Defendants made false and/or misleading statements and/or failed to disclose that: (i) Allergan’s Actavis unit and several of its pharmaceutical industry peers colluded to fix generic drug prices; (ii) the foregoing conduct constituted a violation of federal antitrust laws; (iii) consequently, Allergan’s revenues during the Class Period were in part the result of illegal conduct; and (iv) as a result of the foregoing, Allergan’s public statements were materially false and misleading at all relevant times. 

On November 3, 2016, media outlets reported that U.S. prosecutors might file criminal charges by the end of 2016 against Actavis and several other pharmaceutical companies for unlawfully colluding to fix generic drug prices.

On this news, Allergan’s share price fell $9.07, or 4.58%, to close at $188.82 on November 3, 2016.

The Pomerantz Firm, with offices in New York, Chicago, Florida, and Los Angeles, is acknowledged as one of the premier firms in the areas of corporate, securities, and antitrust class litigation. Founded by the late Abraham L. Pomerantz, known as the dean of the class action bar, the Pomerantz Firm pioneered the field of securities class actions. Today, more than 80 years later, the Pomerantz Firm continues in the tradition he established, fighting for the rights of the victims of securities fraud, breaches of fiduciary duty, and corporate misconduct. The Firm has recovered numerous multimillion-dollar damages awards on behalf of class members. See www.pomerantzlaw.com.

CONTACT:
Robert S. Willoughby
Pomerantz LLP
rswilloughby@pomlaw.com


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Revised law should facilitate tourism’s transformation into key industry

The draft revised tourism law was the focus of group discussions in the NA on the morning of November 8, during the fourteenth parliament’s second session.

Many deputies said that although significant improvements had been made in tourism, growth had yet to match the sector’s potential while new problems had emerged.

Deputy Pham Phu Quoc of Ho Chi Minh City said the revised law should be oriented towards the goal of turning tourism into a key sector of the economy. It needs to be updated with viewpoints, targets and strategic solutions for tourism development by 2020 with a view to 2030.

Van Thi Bach Tuyet, another deputy from Ho Chi Minh City, said rapid growth or profit in tourism should not be achieved at the cost of quality or toleration of illegal activities by foreign firms.

She asked the drafting board to ensure a favourable and efficient legal framework for tourism’s development.

Regarding Article 32 on conditions for operating in travel-related business, some deputies said tourism was a conditional line of business and that those who wanted to provide travel services must have licences as it relates to diplomacy and national security. However, the regulations in the current draft remain too simple.

If those regulations are not amended, anyone can open a travel company, which can complicate Vietnam’s tourism market. Meanwhile, there remain many problems which haven’t been solved thoroughly, such as foreigners’ provision of tourism services under the name of Vietnamese people, or the imitation of travel brand names, deputy Tuyet said.

She urged that travel business conditions be tightened to ensure that tourism activities are under control.

Regulations on conditions for recognising a national tourism site also attracted attention from many deputies.

Deputy Quoc suggested the draft specify that a national tourism site can be recognised regardless of its ownership in order to encourage the private sector to invest in developing tourist attractions.

Deputy Tuyet did not support the stipulation that a tourism site must cover at least 1,000ha of land and welcome 500,000 visitors per year in order to be recognised a national site.

Instead, a national tourism site should be one with rich cultural and natural values that need to be preserved and promoted sustainably, she said.

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Baker Donelson Achieves High Rankings In 2017 U.S. News Best Lawyers "Best Law Firms" List

Baker Donelson has garnered 170 first-tier metropolitan rankings in the 2017 U.S. News – Best Lawyers “Best Law Firms” list, the seventh edition of an annual analysis that includes more than 13,000 U.S. law firms. These Tier 1 rankings across 11 metropolitan markets in eight states earned Baker Donelson a spot among the top ten firms nationally with the most first-tier metropolitan rankings.

In addition to its outstanding metropolitan rankings, Baker Donelson ranked nationally in 24 practice areas, including earning a Tier 1 national ranking in eight practice areas: 

  • Commercial Litigation
  • Construction Law
  • Employment Law – Management
  • Litigation – Construction
  • Litigation – Labor and Employment
  • Mass Tort Litigation/Class Actions – Defendants
  • Railroad Law 
  • Real Estate Law

Additionally, Baker Donelson achieved the highest number of Tier 1 metropolitan rankings in Tennessee, with 93 practice areas ranked, including 18 in Chattanooga.

The 2017 “Best Law Firms” rankings, produced by U.S. News Media Group and Best Lawyers®, are presented in tiers both nationally and by metropolitan area or state. These rankings showcase more than 13,000 different law firms ranked nationally in one or more of 74 legal practice areas, and in metropolitan or state rankings in one or more of 120 major legal practice areas, providing a comprehensive view of the U.S. legal profession that is unprecedented both in the range of firms represented and in the range of qualitative and quantitative data used to develop the rankings.

To determine the “Best Law Firms” rankings, U.S. News Media Group and Best Lawyersconducted national surveys in which major clients and leading lawyers were asked to rate the law firms they consider best in their practice area. These reputational survey responses were combined with more than 7.3 million evaluations of individual lawyers in these firms in the most recent Best Lawyers survey of leading lawyers.

More information about the methodology and the full list of rankings are available online at http://bestlawfirms.usnews.com/. 

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China regulator warns e-commerce firms on dodgy 'Singles Day' sales tactics

China’s business regulator said it has warned leading online shopping companies, including Alibaba Group Holding and JD.com, against adopting dodgy sales tactics at the upcoming “Singles Day” festival, China’s biggest shopping day of the year.

The stakes are high in the one-day event, held annually on November 11, which sees billions of dollars of goods sold online at steep discounts, and is watched as a barometer for the e-commerce industry and consumer economy in China as a whole. Alibaba’s transactions alone exceeded $14 billion last year and are expected to grow this year.

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Brawl mart: shoppers go wild over deals

Chaos ensues across the US as Black Friday shoppers clamour for TVs, toys and other discounted goods on the biggest retail day of the year.

The State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC) said it met with Alibaba, JD.com, Amazon.com, Baidu, Tencent Holdings and several others and warned them against selling fakes, falsifying sales figures and engaging in other fraudulent practices.

“The SAIC will strengthen market supervision … monitor and manage online marketplaces according to law, and together with the majority of industry players jointly create an online market environment of fair competition and an environment for online consumption that is safe and secure,” it said in a statement posted on its website on Tuesday.

Alibaba's transactions alone exceeded $14 billion last year.
Alibaba’s transactions alone exceeded $14 billion last year. Photo: Bloomberg

Alibaba, Amazon, Baidu and Tencent did not immediately respond to emailed requests for comment on the SAIC’s warning.

A JD.com spokesman said: “Our commitment to quality products and service has always been a key differentiator for us in this market and we employ additional resources for major sales to keep that promise even during the busiest periods.”

Singles Day, launched seven years ago by Alibaba, has already eclipsed the combined sales of the equivalent events in the United States: Cyber Monday and Black Friday.

However, cutthroat competition for customers on Singles Day has led to accusations of underhanded tactics by online commerce platforms, including false advertising, massaging of statistics and forcing sellers to choose one platform over others.

A giant display broadcasts Alibaba's sales in Beijing on Singles Day in 2015.
A giant display broadcasts Alibaba’s sales in Beijing on Singles Day in 2015. Photo: AP

While the SAIC has served such a warning in prior years, there is added focus on the Chinese online shopping companies this year after Alibaba’s accounting practices for the event came under the scrutiny of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Some merchants have questioned whether results from the event are really as high as reported.

The SAIC asked the e-commerce firms to guard against fudging of transaction figures, false advertising and sales of fake or shoddy products. It also warned them against deploying fake user ratings.

Black Friday in the US has created some competitive behavior among shoppers.
Black Friday in the US has created some competitive behavior among shoppers.  Photo: Simon Dawson

The regulator noted various problems that had cropped up in 2016 in e-commerce and said “those operating on the internet need to face (the issues) squarely, to further standardise online market order, and optimise the online consumption environment”.

Reuters

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Aon Launches Cyber Risk Mgmt Solution in Response to EU Data Protection Law

Aon plc has launched a risk management solution designed to help organizations prepare for a new data protection law due to come into force on May 25, 2018.

The law, known as the EU General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, will lead to stronger enforcement powers and higher fines, affecting every organization with operations in the European Union, Aon said in a statement.

Aon’s risk management solution will help protect “against some of the potential financial impacts of the regulation,” the broker added.

The regulation introduces stricter requirements on organizations’ processing of personal data, a mandatory data breach notification regime and tougher enforcement powers for regulators including fines of up to 4 percent of annual worldwide turnover and strengthened audit and investigatory powers, Aon explained.

Aon’s EU Data Protect includes:

  1. GDPR Readiness Assessment: A tool to assist organizations identify, prioritize and remediate gaps in their compliance program and understand and mitigate data protection risks in accordance with GDPR.
  2. Cyber Impact Analysis: Sophisticated modeling of the financial impact from data breaches under GDPR and more broadly to provide a comprehensive understanding of the cyber exposures facing the business
  3. EU GDPR Insurance Endorsement: This acknowledges the GDPR in a qualifying cyber policy which includes fines and penalties where insurable by law and costs of defending regulatory action. This endorsement also provides for some regulator required experts’ fees arising from certain loss events
  4. Incident and Claims Response: Access to specialist post-event advisory services, including incident response, digital forensics and claims handling capabilities to expedite remediation and claims settlement

“The GDPR represents a significant regulatory challenge facing firms that do business in the EU,” said Renette Pretorius, Cyber Practice Leader, Aon’s Global Broking Centre in London.

“Its mission is to give citizens back the control of their personal data and equip regulators with sufficient enforcement powers to address the evolving digital landscape and tougher privacy challenges – a change heavily felt across many companies. All businesses operating in the EU, no matter where they are located, should prepare for the impact of this regulation,” Pretorius continued.

“Organizations that do not identify and address compliance gaps in their marketing practices, data handling and data breach response protocols do so at their own peril,” said Andrea Garcia Beltran, EMEA Cyber Sales leader, Aon’s Global Broking Centre in London.

“Business interruption losses are appropriately ‘front of mind’ for many EMEA organizations, but potential liability of up to 4 percent of an organization’s turnover must be added in to the risk management thought process,” Beltran added.

Source: Aon

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Ascertus Limited Offers Safe Haven for Firms Looking for iManage Support Partner; Try before you buy: 90 day, no obligation, free support for iManage Work offered by Ascertus

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Ascertus Limited Offers Safe Haven for Firms Looking for iManage Support Partner; Try before you buy: 90 day, no obligation, free support for iManage Work offered by Ascertus

London, U.K. – – Ascertus Limited, a provider of tailored information and document lifecycle management solutions to law firms, corporate legal departments and other professional services companies,…  


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State corporations flouting the law on ethnic diversity

By Herbling David

One in every three State-owned agencies in Kenya including financial sector players, regulators, and policy makers, has failed the ethnic diversity test, a new study shows.

Key bodies such as Brand Kenya, Vision 2030 Board, Competition Authority of Kenya, and Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (Kippra) are among the 56 firms whose staff composition runs afoul of the law which stipulates that no single ethnic group should control more than a third of a public company jobs.

The striking ethnic imbalance powered by nepotism and corruption threatens to slow down Kenya’s economic growth, warns the National Cohesion and Integration Commission, in a report which analysed all the 185 State corporations.

At the Nairobi Securities Exchange, two-thirds of the 60 companies trading on the bourse have boards that are dominated by directors from single ethnic groups, making up more than 33 per cent, says a separate study by Cytonn.

“Development in Kenya, and elsewhere, can only be sustainable if inclusion and participation of all ethnic groups is guaranteed,” said NCIC chairman Francis Ole Kaparo.

Mr Kaparo says promoting ethnic diversity in public and private companies “underscores the significance of including all persons in economic and social processes.” 

The NCIC findings are part of an annual audit carried out by the agency to measure the ethnic diversity of all State corporations, agencies and independent offices, national as well as county government civil service.

The study indicated that in more than 37 per cent of the parastatals, the chief executive officer is from the same ethnic group as the largest number of employees.

Cytonn says that diversity in terms of gender, ethnicity and backgrounds is a key aspect of corporate governance and has a direct bearing on the performance of a company.

“Companies that are ethnically diverse also outperformed those that are ethnically-biased,” reads the Cytonn Corporate Governance Report published in May.

The cohesion agency findings present a case of preaching water and drinking wine. For example, national marketing agency Brand Kenya Board, charged with the responsibility of promoting the country, does not reflect the face of Kenya.

“Brand Kenya Board ought to bring out a positive image and reputation of the nation. Parastatals that stand for fairness, promotion of the Kenyan identity and consolidation of countryhood should start by being fair and representing the Kenyan people themselves,” said NCIC.

Vision 2030, the body mandated to transform Kenya into a middle-income economy by 2030, was also found to be ethnically biased.

The agency, launched in 2008 — the same year Kenya enacted an ethnic diversity legislation — contravenes the law as members of one community make up 10 out of 29 staff members, or 34.5 per cent of the total, NCIC says.

“All public establishments shall seek to represent the diversity of the people of Kenya in the employment of staff. No public establishment shall have more than one-third of its staff from the same ethnic community”, reads section 7 of the NCIC Act (2008).

Also on the spotlight is the Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (Kippra), a State-backed think-tank which provides advisory and technical services on public policy issues to the government.

Mr Kaparo pointed a finger at the antitrust agency, saying that a body that promotes fair market behaviour and consumer protection should lead by example.

“It should therefore adopt fairness in its recruitment to set an example,” he said in reference to the competition watchdog where employees from one ethnic group form 37.5 per cent of the total workforce.

State-owned Postbank, with 786 employees, has one community taking up 37.5 per cent of the jobs. Members from the same ethnic group dominates the senior management positions. The loss-making bank engages in mobilising national savings but does not issue any loans.

Agricultural Development Corporation, which lends to agripreneurs, is also ethnically-biased. State-backed milked processor New KCC has 1,576 employees, with two communities accounting for nearly two-thirds of the total.

The cohesion body further singled out the Kenya School of Government and the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development for failing to embrace diversity in their staff, given their key fundamental roles in the economy.

The former provides training to the public service, while the latter’s core function is to conduct research and develop curricular for all levels of education below the university.

National values

“Given that representation of diversity is one of the national values and principles of public service, these two institutions ought to lead by example,” said Mr Kaparo. “As a result, their compliance with the NCI Act should be taken as urgent.”

Mr Maurice Oduor, an investment manager at Cytonn, said companies need to employ strategies to promote diversity at the workplace.

“Diversity is essential for well-run  institutions and well-functioning financial markets which in turns are essential to funding the economic growth  leading to job creation and improving the standards of living,” Mr Oduor said in an interview.

Also in the list of agencies flouting ethnic diversity laws is the regulator of legal training, the Council of Legal Education, as well as the Kenya School of Law, the sole institution for those seeking to practice as lawyers in Kenya.

Mr Kaparo termed this ethnic bias as an “illegal contravention,” saying it amounted to a judge violating the very law that he ought to base a decision on in the pursuit of justice.

“The question is how can the institution promote legal education by contravening the very law it seeks to promote?” asked the cohesion team chairman.

Promote professionalism

The Institute of Human Resource Management, the regulatory body for those engaged in HR and expected to promote professionalism and diversity in recruitment, failed the crucial NCIC test.

Another professional body which did not meet the ethnic diversity requirement is the Kenya Institute of Supplies Management, which regulates public procurement.

The Micro and Small Enterprises Authority, formed in 2012 to promote the development of mid-sized businesses, has its workforce dominated by four communities making up three-quarters of the total number of employees.

“Ethnic diversity means different viewpoints, new products and new markets, as well as a better working environment and less ‘group-think’ effects. All this collectively makes for better working environments, and better ideas mean better outcomes,” said Deepak Dave of Riverside Capital.

Troubled Mumias Sugar was also found to be flouting the ethnic balance law, with staff from one community accounting for 76 per cent of the 1,686 workforce, according to NCIC.

China regulator warns e-commerce firms on 'Singles Day' sales tactics

Nov 8 China’s business regulator said
it has warned leading online shopping companies, including
Alibaba Group Holding and JD.com, against
adopting dodgy sales tactics at the upcoming “Singles Day”
festival, China’s biggest shopping day of the year.

The stakes are high in the one-day event, held annually on
Nov. 11, which sees billions of dollars of goods sold online at
steep discounts, and is watched as a barometer for the
e-commerce industry and consumer economy in China as a whole.
Alibaba’s transactions alone exceeded $14 billion last year and
are expected to grow this year.

The State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC)
said it met with Alibaba, JD.com, Amazon.com Inc, Baidu
Inc, Tencent Holdings and several others on
Monday and warned them against selling fakes, falsifying sales
figures and engaging in other fraudulent practices.

“The SAIC will strengthen market supervision … monitor and
manage online marketplaces according to law, and together with
the majority of industry players jointly create an online market
environment of fair competition and an environment for online
consumption that is safe and secure,” it said in a statement
posted on its website on Tuesday.

Alibaba, Amazon, Baidu and Tencent did not immediately
respond to emailed requests for comment on the SAIC’s warning.

A JD.com spokesman said: “Our commitment to quality products
and service has always been a key differentiator for us in this
market and we employ additional resources for major sales to
keep that promise even during the busiest periods.”

Singles Day, launched seven years ago by Alibaba, has
already eclipsed the combined sales of the equivalent events in
the United States: Cyber Monday and Black Friday.

However, cutthroat competition for customers on Singles Day
has led to accusations of underhanded tactics by online commerce
platforms, including false advertising, massaging of statistics
and forcing sellers to choose one platform over others.

While the SAIC has served such a warning in prior years,
there is added focus on the Chinese online shopping companies
this year after Alibaba’s accounting practices for the event
came under the scrutiny of the U.S. Securities and Exchange
Commission. Some merchants have questioned whether results from
the event are really as high as reported.

The SAIC asked the e-commerce firms to guard against fudging
of transaction figures, false advertising and sales of fake or
shoddy products. It also warned them against deploying fake user
ratings.

The regulator noted various problems that had cropped up in
2016 in e-commerce and said “those operating on the internet
need to face (the issues) squarely, to further standardize
online market order, and optimize the online consumption
environment”.

(Reporting by John Ruwitch; Editing by Muralikumar
Anantharaman)


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